In today’s world, industrially developed countries attach great importance to the machine tool industry, and are racing to develop advanced machine tools of mechatronics, high precision, high efficiency, and high automation in order to accelerate the development of industry and the national economy. For a long time, Europe, the United States, and Asia have competed fiercely with each other in the international market, and an invisible front has been formed. Especially with the advancement of microelectronics and computer technology, the development of CNC machine tools has accelerated after the 1980s, and users from all parties have proposed changes. Multi-demand has long become the focus of machine tool manufacturers from various countries competing to showcase advanced technology, compete for users, and expand the market at the four major international machine tool exhibitions. After China joined the WTO, it has formally participated in the fierce competition in the world market. How to strengthen the strength of the machine tool industry and accelerate the development of the CNC machine tool industry in the future is an urgent and arduous task.
The technical characteristics and development conditions of CNC machine tools
In 1948, the US Air Force provided equipment research funding for the manufacture of miscellaneous aircraft parts. G&L and MIT cooperated for four years of research. In 1952, the world’s first CNC milling machine was trial-produced, and 100 units were immediately delivered to military industry. The results show that it is the crystallization of social needs, the level of science and technology, and the quality of personnel; technically, it shows the huge innovation in the control of mechatronics machine tools.
Technical characteristics of CNC machine tools
CNC machine tools have the following three outstanding characteristics:
Using binary mathematical input, the machining process can be programmed arbitrarily, the spindle and feed speed can be changed according to the needs of the machining process, and multi-coordinate linkage can be realized, which is easy to process mixed curved surfaces. The processing objects have the characteristics of “changeable, changeable and fickle”, easy to change batches and adjustments, which can realize the flexible production of small and medium batches of various kinds of miscellaneous parts, and meet the needs of the society for diversified products. However, the price is more expensive, and the economic rationality of its use needs to be correctly analyzed; the combination of hardware and software can realize information feedback, compensation, automatic acceleration and deceleration and other functions, which can further improve the processing accuracy, efficiency, and automation of the machine tool; The mechatronics machine tool based on electronic control makes full use of the unique advantages of microelectronics and computer technology. It is easy to realize informatization, intelligence and networking, and can easily form various advanced manufacturing systems, such as FMS, FTL, FA , And even the future CIMS, can maximize industrial productivity and labor productivity.
Conditions for the development of CNC machine tools
Everything has its characteristics and development conditions, and people can only accelerate its development after mastering it. The development conditions of CNC machine tools mainly include:
It is a comprehensive combination of various high-tech multi-disciplines of mechanics, electricity, liquids, gas, and light. It is especially based on modern advanced technologies such as electronics and computers. It must have a solid technical foundation and complement each other, and none of them are indispensable. If it is not available, the CNC machine tool will not develop smoothly;
The CNC machine tool is composed of the main machine, various components (functional parts) and the CNC system. It also requires the cooperation of advanced automated tools to realize processing. Each link must be practically passed in terms of technology and quality to ensure reliable work. Stability can ensure the accuracy, efficiency and automation of the CNC machine tools; otherwise, it will be difficult to use in actual production;
It is a combination of social needs, technological level and personnel quality, without one missing. If the quality of personnel is poor and the level of technology is not up to the standard, it will be difficult to meet social needs. Human beings are the main body of all activities, and all kinds of experts, talents and skilled workers who are proficient in business are required to cooperate with each other and complete them together. Otherwise, it is difficult for CNC machine tools to develop smoothly.
The main experience in the development of CNC machine tools in industrially developed countriers
In the 50 years since the emergence of CNC machine tools, it has continued to develop with the advancement of science and technology, especially microelectronics and computer technology. The United States, Germany, and Japan are the countries with the most advanced technology and the most experience in the scientific research, design, manufacturing and use of CNC machine tools in the world today. Because of their different social conditions, each has its own characteristics.
The characteristic of the United States is that the government attaches great importance to the machine tool industry. The United States Department of Defense and other departments continue to propose the development direction of machine tools, scientific research tasks and provide sufficient funds, and recruit talents from all over the world, with special emphasis on “efficiency” and “innovation” and basic scientific research. Therefore, continuous innovation in machine tool technology, such as the development of the world’s first CNC machine tool in 1952, the creation of a machining center in 1958, the development of FMS in the early 1970s, and the first open CNC system in 1987. Since the United States first combined the needs of automobile and bearing production, fully developed a large number of automatic lines required for mass production automation, and the electronic and computer technology is the world’s leading, so its CNC machine tool host design, manufacturing and CNC system have a solid foundation and have always attached importance to it. Scientific research and innovation, so its high-performance CNC machine tool technology has been leading the world. Today the United States not only produces high-performance CNC machine tools used by aerospace, but also produces cheap and practical CNC machine tools for small and medium-sized enterprises (such as Haas, Fadal, etc.). The lesson of its existence is that it focuses on basic scientific research and ignores applied technology. In the 1980s, the government once relaxed the guidance, which caused the slow increase in the output of CNC machine tools. In 1982, it was surpassed by the less advanced Japan and imported in large quantities. Since the 1990s, the past deviations have been corrected, the technology of CNC machine tools has become practical, and the output has gradually increased.
The German government has always attached importance to the important strategic position of the machine tool industry and vigorously supported it in many aspects. Special attention is paid to “practical” and “effectiveness”, adhere to the “people-oriented”, passed on from master to apprentice, and continuously improve the quality of personnel. On the basis of the development of a large number of mass production automation, after the development of the first CNC machine tool in 1956, it has always insisted on seeking truth from facts, emphasizing the spirit of science, and making steady progress. Germany pays special attention to scientific experiment, combining theory with practice, and attaching equal importance to basic scientific research and applied technology scientific research. The company cooperates closely with the university’s scientific research department to conduct in-depth research on the commonality and characteristics of user products, processing technology, machine tool layout structure, and CNC machine tools, and strive for excellence in quality. German CNC machine tools are of good quality and performance, advanced, practical, and genuine, and they are exported all over the world. Especially large, heavy, precision CNC machine tools. Germany attaches great importance to the advanced practicality of CNC machine tools and accessories. Its mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, optical, cutting tools, measurement, CNC systems, and various functional components are among the best in the world in terms of quality and performance. For example, the CNC system of Siemens and the precision grating of Heidenhain are both world-renowned and are competing for adoption.
The Japanese government attaches great importance to the development of the machine tool industry, and guides the development through planning and regulations (such as “machine vibration law”, “mechanical and electrical law”, “machine information law”, etc.). Learn from Germany on the importance of talents and machine tool components, and learn from the United States on quality management and CNC machine tool technology, and even out of blue is better than blue. Similar to the United States and Germany, Japan has fully developed a large number of large-scale production automation, and then made every effort to develop small and medium-sized CNC machine tools for flexible production automation. Since the first CNC machine tool was developed in 1958, its output (7,342 units) surpassed the United States (5,688 units) in 1978, and its output and export volume have been ranked first in the world (46,604 units in 2001, 27,409 units exported, accounting for 59%) . Strategically imitate first and then create, Mr.’s mid-range CNC machine tools with large and wide output are exported in large quantities, occupying the world’s vast market.
The status quo of China’s CNC machine tools and the main problems in the development
The status quo of CNC machine tools
At present, there are many people in China’s machine tool industry. In 2000, there were approximately 358 metal-cutting machine tool manufacturing plants (206,000) and 191 forming machine tool manufacturing plants (approximately 65,000), for a total of 549 (271,000). Among them, about 150 produce CNC metal cutting machine tools, about 30 produce CNC forming machine tools, a total of about 180, accounting for 1/3 of the total number of manufacturers. In 2001, the output of metal cutting machine tools was 192,000, and the internal CNC metal cutting machine tools were 17,521. About 9%.
In general: the output of CNC machine tools continues to increase, and in 2001 it was 3.6 times that of 1991; the import volume increased rapidly, reaching 29 times, the export volume increased, but the number was small, 4.8 times; the consumption of CNC machine tools increased Faster, up to 7.9 times. Output cannot meet the needs of social development.
In terms of value, in 2001, 17,679 CNC machine tools were imported, totaling US$1.41 billion, and 2,509 units were exported, totaling US$44 million. The import value was 32 times the export value. Imports are large but exports are small.
The main problems in the development of CNC machine tools in China
China developed the first CNC machine tool in 1958. The development process can be roughly divided into two major stages. It was the first stage from 1958 to 1979, and the second stage from 1979 to the present. In the first stage, there was a lack of understanding of the characteristics and development conditions of CNC machine tools. In the case of poor quality of personnel, weak foundation, and poor supporting parts, they rushed up and down. There were three ups and downs, and finally due to poor performance. Good, unable to be used in production and stopped. The main problem is that it is blind and lacks the scientific spirit of seeking truth from facts. In the second stage, CNC system technology was introduced from Japan, Germany, the United States, and Spain, and CNC machine tools were introduced from 11 countries (regions) from Japan, the United States, Germany, Italy, Britain, France, Switzerland, Hungary, Austria, South Korea, and Taiwan Province. Advanced technology, cooperation, and joint venture production have solved the reliability and stability problems, and CNC machine tools have begun to be officially produced and used, and are gradually moving forward.
In more than 20 years, the design and manufacturing technology of CNC machine tools has been greatly improved, mainly in three aspects: training a group of design, manufacturing, use and maintenance talents; through cooperation in the production of advanced CNC machine tools, so that the design, manufacturing, use The level has been greatly improved, and the gap with the world’s advanced technology has been narrowed; through the use of foreign advanced components and numerical control systems, it has begun to design and manufacture high-speed, high-performance, five-sided or five-axis simultaneous CNC machine tools to supply the domestic market Demand, but the test, digestion, mastery and innovation of key technologies are poor. So far, many important functional components, automated tools, and numerical control systems rely on foreign technical support and cannot develop independently. They are basically in the stage of moving from imitation to self-development, which is far from the level of Japanese CNC machine tools. The main problems that exist include: lack of guidelines such as Japan’s “Mechanical and Electrical Law” and “Machine Information Law”; a serious lack of experts and skilled workers in various fields; lack of in-depth and systematic scientific research; components and numerical control systems are not matched; enterprises There is a lack of cooperation with majors, and basically fighting alone. Although there are many people in the factory, they cannot form a joint force.
China accelerates the development of CNC machine tool industry
In order to accelerate the development of the CNC machine tool industry in the future, China must not only deeply sum up the past experience and lessons, and effectively improve the existing problems, but also earnestly learn from the advanced experience of foreign countries and proceed along the right path. It is recommended to do the following:
There are many people in the Chinese factory, and it is extremely necessary for the correct guidelines and policies to give strong guidance to the development of CNC machine tools. We should learn from the experience of the United States, Germany, and Japan. In terms of policies, we should pay attention to the scientific spirit and economic effectiveness, and take the principle of improving productivity and labor productivity as the principle. In terms of methods, go deep into users, be proficient in craftsmanship, focus on low, medium and high grades, learn from Japan, and first solve large and wide-scale mid-range CNC machine tools, mass production, occupy the market, reduce imports, and expand exports. In terms of steps and measures, we must make the domestic CNC system advanced and reliable, pay close attention to product quality and matching parts, and lay a good technical foundation. In the near future, it is important to lay the foundation, build credibility, expand the domestic market share of domestic CNC machine tools, seek to catch up with the world’s advanced level in the long run, and make strides to the world market;
We must pay close attention to the fundamentals, adhere to the “people-oriented”, accelerate the improvement of personnel quality, cultivate various experts and talents, and fundamentally change the current low-efficiency and backward state. People are the foundation of success or failure in all undertakings. At all levels, we must pay attention to “training, selecting and employing talents”, establish a learning-oriented enterprise, establish a corporate culture, accelerate the cultivation of new talents, train in-service personnel, establish a system of mentor and apprenticeship, and organize various Technical lectures, training courses and seminars, and even hire foreign experts, consultants, etc., to try to improve CNC.